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Hongshan Culture (La Culture de Mont Rouge)
Hongshan (means “Red Hill”) culture was discovered by France, Japan and domestic China’s archeologists in early 20th century. In 1938, a Japanese archeologist Hamada Kōsaku（濱田耕作）published his book named “After Red Hill At Chifen”《赤峰紅山後》 about his fieldwork included archeological digs at Chifeng of China. Hongshan culture covers an area from the Wuerjimulun River valley of Chifeng, Inner Mongolia in the north to Chaoyang, Lingyuan and the northern part of Hebei Province in the south, extends 200,000 square km centers. This Culture dates from 4500-2250BC and is one of the earliest and the most advanced civilizations discovered to date in China. During its beginning period, Hongshan culture was in its heyday of matriarchal society, whose key social structure is mainly composed by tribal groups linked by blood strain of women. Gradually it transited into the patriarchal society. The agriculture-based economy, integrates animal husbandry, fishing, and hunting as one. Its remains are made up of the unique painted pottery, “Z”-shaped pottery and microlith which owns features of Neolithic culture.